Complications of Uncontrolled Diabetes

Chronic Complications of Diabetes

Chronic complications of diabetes arise after many years of exposure to high blood glucose levels. Complications may also be present in patients at the time of Diagnosis, but this only reflects the delay in diagnoses of diabetes. There are multiple reasons of the complications. Due to persistent High blood glucose levels- glucose becomes a part of the functional molecules in blood and tissues, these are called Advanced Glycation end produts or AGE'S, they are responsible for damage to kidneys, eyes and blood vessels.

When the glucose levels are persistently raised all the cells of body are immersed in a sugary syrup ( like Jalebi / or gulab Jamun in syrup), this affects the synthesis of proteins, as proteins are structural elements of the cells, cells formed with a defective structure are not able to function properly ( like a house built with defective and fragile bricks).

Many other chemical and pathways have been identified and proven to cause damage due to high blood glucose levels. Chronic complications are broadly divided into Macrovascular and Microvascular complications, they may occur together or independent of each other, generally macrovascular complications are first to present themselves.

Due to persistently raised levels of Glucose, cells forming the inner lining of blood vessel (endothelial cells) are not able to function properly and may cause clotting of blood and formation of thrombuses which disrupt blood supply to vital organs like heart, brain or kidneys.

 Macrovascular Complications

Macrovascular complications include formation of atherosclerotic plaques which block arteries and blood vessels supplying blood to vital organs of body like the heart itself, brain, kidneys, legs and the major blood vessels themselves. Such damage may result in High Blood Pressure, Heart attack,   stroke, peripheral vascular disease .

High Blood Pressure, Angina, Peripheral Artery Disease Heart Failure.. Blockage of Arteries in Brain causes Stroke & Paralysis, Life threatening and Debilitating Complication of Diabetes

 Microvascular complications

Microvascular complications are caused by damage to small microscopic blood vessels present in kidneys, eyes, nerves- there destruction leads to damaging of the respective organs or their tissues which causes, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic Retinopathy or various Neuropathies

Diabetes may cause Blindness  Pain & Burning in feet is a frequent complication of Diabetes
Retinopathy, Galucoma & Cataract.. Kidney Failure- Dialysis and Transplant Neuropathy, Peripheral and Autonomic 


Foot complications of diabetes diabetes ulcersDiabetic Foot is a Constellation of Problems affecting the Foot in Diabetics, Damage to Nerves and Blood vessels lead to formation of non healing wounds which may even require amputation of the leg for treatment. Click here to read more..